Photo editing is what I love, and I hate who’s against it

It always happens. I always find someone who thinks photo editing is a toy for kids, and serious photographers stick with what the camera produces. This is the first rant of my blog, and I’ll write exactly what I think of them. They’re ignorant.

Why do I think they’re ignorant? Because they ignore photography history, ignore what photo editing actually is, and ignore what photography itself is. I hate when someone looks at me from above and says, with a presumption of superiority: “Ah… so you do image editing…”, implying my photography can’t be that good.

Photo editing expresses your vision

If you’re a vision driven photographer, image editing is always good. You make images because you want to express your vision, because you want to interpret the reality. Retouching is a means of expression, and you can do whatever you want with it. Just like a painter, the photographer can “draw” whatever he wants. In fine art photography, everything is allowed, because personal expression isn’t documentary.

The problem seems to rise when we talk about documentary and photojournalism. Picture editing is allowed even there. You just have to put some boundaries to avoid breaking in the deception field. You can’t remove photo editing from your toolbox.

As far as you don’t mislead your audience, you can do whatever you want. In photojournalism, it isn’t ethically correct to manipulate an image in such ways that change the meaning of the picture. That said, you shouldn’t add or remove things from your image, but why should’t you optimize contrast or colors?

Once there was film

The reality has always been modified by the camera and the film inside it. At the beginning, there was only black and white film. Black and white is intrinsically a photo manipulation. The world is in color, and every reproduction of the world without color is a manipulation of reality.

Color film isn’t different. Every film brand and model has a peculiar reaction to light waves. Kodachrome 64 reproduces colors in an extremely different way than the way Fuji Velvia does. That’s why photographers always have their favorite film. That’s a first stage of image editing. The photographer chooses a film for the interpretation of the reality it produces.

In film development there are dozens of ways of altering the look of a picture such as push development, cross processing, bleach bypass, and so on.

In the printing process too, photographers used, and still use, a whole arsenal of tools to retouch their images. Think of dodge and burn, and look at the images of Mario Giacomelli, just to cite one. He extensively burned his pictures. Almost every notable photographer did it, some in a more prominent way than others.

Then, the printer can choose among a plethora of printing processes and mediums, such as silver, uranium, platinum, palladium, and so on. Each giving the image a different tone, contrast and, consequently, mood.

A notable example of photo manipulation in printing comes from the 1954 picture of Dr. Albert Schweitzer by W. Eugene Smith. Besides the tonal adjustments, Smith added in the lower right corner a silhouette of hands coming from another negative. That was to reinforce the figure of Dr. Schweitzer in an almost holy figure, due to the work he was doing in Gabon.

W. Eugene Smith - Dr. Albert Schweitzer Marking Timbers during Construction Project -1954

Copyright © The Heirs of W. Eugene Smith (Courtesy of Masters of Photography)

In his explanation, Smith said:

“This is the way I see it… that photography has very little of reality in it, and then only on the lower level of simple recognition. Beyond that, in the transmission of inner feeling, I feel that everything that is honest to the situation is honest to the photograph.”

Image editing exists since the beginnings of photography

Detractors of picture editing always think this is a modern practice, and a direct derivation of digital photography. I say that digital photography has changed the means of photo editing, but the substance is always the same.

Positive and less positive cases of image editing are recorded since 1860, with a photo montage of a picture of Abraham Lincoln. The image from W. Eugene Smith from above is another example. Then there is the 1982 case of National Geographic putting a manipulated image of the pyramids on the cover of the magazine.

Also, the work of Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii comes to mind. It was 1908 when Prokudin-Gorskii used a complex procedure to make color images without automatic color film. We could say that Prokudin-Gorskii images are a photo manipulation used to represent reality more closely than black and white could do. Is it unethical?

Alim Khan (1880-1944), emir of Bukhara

Alim Khan (1880-1944), emir of Bukhara by Prokudin-Gorskii – Public domain

You can’t be a sheep and shoot RAW without picture editing

It seems the detractors of picture editing focus against digital manipulation, but really, where’s the difference?

The digital era isn’t that different. By now, there are two main types of digital recordings of digital images: RAW and rasterized images (JPEG, TIF etc.). While RAW is a raw capture of light in front of the camera, rasterized images are an interpretation of that light.

Rasterized images are, in a way, similar to what film does, except it happens in digital form and on fixed parameters. The camera always works in RAW, but when it produces the JPEG, it interprets the data based on some parameters.

RAW images itself are flat and ugly. They have little contrast, turned off and uncalibrated colors, and a low sharpness. To really appreciate an image, you have to process it by means of a RAW processor. This tool does the same the camera does when shooting JPEG, except for giving control to the photographer.

Some months ago a fellow photographer told me the heinous phrase: “Oh… so you do photo retouch…”. I asked if he did, and he proudly told me that he didn’t. Naturally, I asked him if he sets his camera to shoot in JPEG, and he horrified said: “Nooooo, I shoot RAW, because it has a wider dynamic range!”. WHAT? Are you stupid or what?

Don’t be a sheep. Don’t shoot RAW just because everyone says you should do. If you want to shoot RAW—and you should—you have to post process your images. If you are against photo editing, shoot JPEG (and let the camera do post processing for you). That’s a fact.

Photography itself is misleading

We have to distinguish intervention form deception. These are two different but overlapping concepts. Deception happens when the photographer manipulates the image in such a way that makes the viewer believe in something that isn’t real. Intervention happens when the photographer manipulates the image to give his interpretation of, or reinforce the reality.

The problem is: when intervention becomes deception? There isn’t a clear border line. The W. Eugene Smith’s image from above is a clear case of ambiguity. Is that deception or an intervention of the author?

Although I don’t use such manipulations in my images, for me it is an interpretation. It is an interpretation because it doesn’t make the audience believe in something that does not exist. Smith’s manipulation reinforces an idea, it doesn’t change it.

Photography is misleading by itself. Photography doesn’t reproduce reality, it interprets it. The photographer has a great control in this process, but he can’t avoid interpretation. The mere framing process is a manipulation of reality. Choosing to exclude or include something in a composition is an act of intervention. Selective focus is an act of intervention. Can we call it deception?

There are many levels of intervention in an image. Some are subtle, and some are not. Think of flash strobes. They are a means of image manipulation. If a photographer adds light where it doesn’t exist, he is manipulating the image. Is it deception? Has it more dignity than photoshopping? Why?

It seems to be more acceptable if the photo manipulation happens in camera than if it happens out of camera. Also, it seems to be more acceptable a photo manipulation made by old means rather than modern ones. This is stupid.

We have to trust the photographer

After all, we have to trust the photographer. He has the power of deceiving his audience in such subtle ways one can never be able to notice. A photographer has to build trust in his audience, making them understand that he interprets his subjects, but he doesn’t deceive his viewers.

We have to embrace photography as an art. As art, photography is of interpretative nature. It is a vision driven means of expression, and as such, every tool serves the purpose of transmitting what the photographer sees.

Photo editing is a formidable power, and “a great power comes with a great responsibility”, as the uncle of a strange man in tights once said (yes, that’s a citation I use a lot). By the way, that man in tights was a photographer.

I want to clarify that picture editing isn’t an excuse to be sloppy with your camera. You always have to make the effort to produce the best (digital) negative you possibly can. Photo editing is a means of reinforcing your vision, but it isn’t a means to systematically recover bad images just because you can.

Now go out there and start transmitting your vision to your audience. Don’t deceive them, but make them understand your images are your own vision, they’re not the reality.

What do you think of photo editing, is it a means of expression or a deceiving tool? Are you against it (attracting my hate)?

  • Dipayan Bhattacharjee

    WoW!! Very well written… I was always FOR photo editing, not “deceiving”, but “re-enforcing”… And I have been smacked on many times for that… But being an amateur at the field myself, I didn’t have much explanation to give… All I could say was “i’m not changing reality!”… But now I have your link… And any one who pushes me in this regard, i’m gonna link them right here… Kudos!! :)

    • Davide

      Thanks Dipayan!
      Exactly, often one feels it’s right to do photo editing, but can’t explain why. The reality is, there isn’t an explanation because photo editing is integral part of the photographic process.

  • Dennis Warren

    I tell people that I start editing when I choose the aperature, shutter speed, ISO, crop within the lens, and POV. If they don’t understand that…well, why bother ???

    • Davide

      Thanks for the comment, Dennis!
      That’s exactly the point: photography per se is editing.
      It’s not that I bother if someone doesn’t understand, but I bother if someone accuses me of cheating. ;)

  • Sandro Franchi

    Is great to read you saying the same I told my students in every workshop or to my friends when this subject arises. Well and precisely written, thanks Davide!

    • Davide

      Thank you Sandro!
      I hope your students will grow up understanding the importance of photo editing and what its limits are. With an open minded mentor like you that’s definitely the case ;)

      I’d like to do a workshop with you, let’s keep in contact!

  • Mark Eden

    Well Said Davide. Post processing is simply part of the process of creating images. Someone once said to me that there are three images involved in creating a photo. The one you envision, the one you shoot with your camera, and the end result. The closer the last is to the first, the closer you are to realising your vision.

    • Davide

      Thank you for the comment Mark!
      That sentence is from David duChemin, if I don’t go wrong. He is a talented vision driven photographer .

  • Randy Johnston

    Well said David. I shoot in RAW for the sole purpose of wanting to have control over my final images. I take a photograph because I want to capture an image of what I see . . . and when I process it, I’m really recreating the scene/portrait as I saw it, which may or may not have been as it really existed.

    To me, it’s a form of expression/art and doesn’t take away from my abilities as a photographer, but rather adds a whole new dimension.

  • MoStphotography

    agree and disagree at the same time.
    yes to editing, if editing is what it means… most people see editing as retouching which it is not.
    if you shoot RAW you will have to do some editing, from colour adjustments to contrast… if you shoot in jpg, the camera already does some edit for you.
    i find that images have to be edited but i dont feel the need for retouching. if you want slim model, get a slim model and not make her slim in post. if you want to shoot at a beach, go to a beach or built a set, dont shoot against white backdrop and add a beach after.
    all my work on is edited in lightroom but has not been retouched

    • Davide

      Well, I think it depends on the kind of photography you make. I don’t feel retouching as a bad thing in fine art photography. Fine art photography is an expression of the vision of the artist, and retouching is just another mean to reach the image he has in mind. It is art, after all.

      Different is the case of photojournalism. When you are reporting and documenting something, you must not modify the reality.
      But, as I said in the article, the mere framing is a modification of reality, so the border is very thin.

      Commercial photography falls in between. It has to make a product appealing, but at the same time it has to let people see how it looks like. Retouching a model to make a dress look at its best isn’t that bad to me, but there can be other reasons to not retouch a model. I mean ethical reasons linked to social problematics such as anorexia etc.

  • LOLfromPasa

    You are a ‘pro’ and I am learning starting off with my phone camera and now using a Panasonic point and shoot with no viewfinder. No viewfinder means that every picture I take is a discovery process when I view it on the computer. What seems to happen is that I find a picture within my picture and so begins the editing….first with cropping. I have enjoyed looking at your website and photographs….we connected via Twitter. Cheers!

    • Davide

      Thanks for the comment LOLfromPasa!
      As you go ahead in your journey in photography, you’ll discover that you’ll like cropping in post production less and less. It happened to me. When I started out, I cropped almost every image, until I realized I was just sloppy when taking pictures (and my images where too small to print).
      You’ll want to keep “luck” out of your images as much as you can, even with a point and shoot camera. You should try to see your picture within the picture at the moment of shooting. Try to crop in camera (on the display of your point and shoot), and get closer to your subjects! In other words, as “pros” say: work your subject!

  • John Kim

    You are completely correct. Only an amateur who has never properly taken a film class will say they should get everything perfect in the camera. Photoshop is an extension of what has existed for over a century with film editing. Anyways good article

    • Davide

      Thanks John!

  • Mike

    No digital camera is perfect, editing tools are necessary to present an image in it’s best possible way. I love post processing and will certainly continue to use the tools available.


    • Davide

      Well said Mike!

  • Micah DeBenedetto

    bravo. awesome assessment!

  • MG Graphics

    well said. awesome article…

  • Brian Neely

    This is very well said. In film, I shoot certain black & white films, and I develop them a certain way to get the look I want. In digital there are certain adjustments I make to every photo, which acts as a sort of film selection, and then I make further adjustments to tweak the image. As I like to say, “Photography isn’t about showing the world as it is, but as I see it.” (My own quote, as far as I know.)

  • Rolf I

    You make some interesting and valid points. But what one man might see as an advantage, another sees as a disadvantage. I’ve been shooting digital since 2006, and doing my own processing in lightroom and photoshop. But a couple of months ago I sold all my digital gear and went back to film. Not having all the postprocessing options now actually feels liberating. Some films have been discontinued, but there are also new ones coming out. Film and digital will continue to live side by side and together for a very long time.

  • Sonel

    Well said Davide and I love your article. I love photo-editing and the software that are available. I have a Weekly Photo-Editing challenge on WordPress where bloggers are welcome to take part in to show what fun you can have with photo-editing. What irritates me is the fact that some photographers who doesn’t like it would say that they like the original photo the best because they are ‘old-fashioned’. I am not a professional photographer at all and photography keeps the ‘black dog’ away as it makes the see the world around me in a different way and it’s fun editing a photo that you took yourself and be creative and there’s nothing wrong with it. I just wish these ‘old-fashioned’ photographers could keep their narrow visions to themselves.
    Thanks for a lovely article. :D